Data Snapshot: How Do Donors Support Citizen Engagement in Tax Policy?

Written by Andrew Wainer, Director, Policy Research

This summer’s Addis Tax Initiative (ATI) conference in Berlin demonstrated that the ATI is increasingly open to civil society participation. It was a forum where donors and revenue authorities discussed how to better harness tax for development, but local and global NGOs also asserted the importance of accountability and equity in tax policy and administration.

The elevated voice of civil society on tax follows an increase in donor domestic resource mobilization (DRM) assistance to civil society, according to our analysis of OECD data[i].  For example, among ATI donors, the percentage of DRM assistance to civil society rose from 4% ($6 million) in 2015 to 10% ($21 million) in 2017 – an increase of 252%, the largest increase of any category of assistance (see Table 1).

Table 1: Percent Change DRM Disbursements Channel, 2015 to 2017

Channel Change (%)
Public Sector -20
NGOs & Civil Society 252
Public-Private Partnerships (PPP) 186
Multilateral Organizations 42
Teaching Institutions, Research Institutions, Think-Tanks 61
Private Sector Institutions 77*
Other -86

 * OECD CRS values reported only for years 2016 and 2017. Percent change calculated from these two years.

Nevertheless, donor investment in civil society on tax issues remains small within the bigger picture of DRM funding.  And even as the role of civil society in tax policy and administration increases, much more needs to be learned about the impacts of civil society participation

Norway Provides Half Its DRM Assistance to Civil Society
Analysis of the OECD’s Creditor Reporting System data reveals that, for 2017, the top five ATI DRM donors to civil society (by amount of US dollars) provided 95% of total DRM assistance to civil society among all ATI donors (see Table 2 below).

The UK provided the largest amount of funding for civil society – $9 million, or about a quarter of its total $37 million DRM budget for 2017. And the US – while providing the largest total amount of DRM assistance – provided the second largest amount to civil society – $5 million. But Norway is particularly notable for providing fully half of its total DRM budget to civil society – a far larger percentage than any of the other top 5 donors.

Table 2: Top 5 ATI Donors Providing DRM Assistance Channeled Through Civil Society, 2017

ATI Donor Country DRM Assistance to Civil Society (millions of USD)* Total DRM Assistance (millions of USD)* % of Total DRM Assistance Channeled through Civil Society
United Kingdom 9 37 24
United States 5 49 10
Norway 4 8 50
Denmark 1 5 20
EU Institutions 1 14 4

*USD Figures are rounded to the nearest million

 

Assistance Split Between Local and International NGOs
ATI assistance to civil society is clustered among five major donors, but what type of civil society organizations receive this assistance?

As Table 3 demonstrates, it’s split: In 2017, 40% of all ATI DRM assistance to civil society went to developing country-based NGOs, defined as: “An NGO organized at the national level, based and operated in a developing [country].”

While developing country NGOs received a substantial minority of the assistance, the same amount was disbursed to NGOs based in donor countries. These are defined as national-level NGOs based and operated in donor counties. Such organizations would include, for example, Oxfam America and Save the Children USA.

 Finally, almost 20% of this assistance to civil society was delivered to international NGOs, defined as, “an NGO organized on the international level. Some INGOs may act as umbrella organisations with affiliations in several donor and/or recipient countries.” Examples in this category include Doctors Without Borders and the Society for International Development.

Table 3: DRM Civil Society Assistance Delivery Channel, 2017

Delivery Channel Amount (millions of USD)* % of Civil Society DRM Assistance Received Through this Channel
International NGOs 4 19
Donor-county based NGOs 9 40
Developing-country based NGOs 9 40

*USD figures are rounded to the nearest million

 

Africa Receives More Than Half of All DRM Assistance to Civil Society
What part of the world is this donor assistance going to? In 2017, more than half ($11 million) went to Africa (See Table 4). Western Hemisphere nations were the second largest recipients – receiving almost a quarter ($5 million) of all ATI DRM civil society assistance. Asia, Europe, and  Oceana received very small percentages of this type of assistance totaling a combined 6% of all assistance to civil for tax work.

Table 4: DRM Civil Society Assistance to Recipient Regions, 2017

Recipient Region Amount (millions of USD)* % of Civil Society DRM Assistance Received by Region
Africa 11 53
Americas 5 23
Developing Countries, Unspecified 4 18
Europe 1 4
Asia <1 2
Oceania <1 0

 

How is DRM Assistance to Civil Society Used?
As Table 5 demonstrates, almost half of all assistance is directed toward capacity building. Tax advocacy is a complex and contested space, so civil society organizations often need help building the capacity to credibly engage on fiscal issues – particularly at the national level – so this large allocation makes sense. 

Table 5: Civil Society Uses for DRM Assistance, 2017

Function Amount (millions of USD)* % of Total Civil Society ATI DRM Assistance Spent on Function
Transparency 3 14
Technical Assistance and Support 2 10
Research 1 5
Capacity Building 9 43
Other 1 5
Unspecified 5 24

*USD Figures are rounded to the nearest million

 

Taxation and Gender Equity
Ensuring that tax policy and administration is gender-responsive is also an important component of ensuring tax equity. The OECD “tags” foreign assistance for gender equality by assigning activities as ones where gender equality is a “principal objective”, a “significant objective”, or where gender equality is not an objective. As illustrated in Table 6, according to the OECD data, only 13% of civil society DRM assistance in 2017 contained a gender equality component – activities where gender equality were either a principal or significant objective.

Table 6: Support for Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment for Tax, 2017

DAC Gender Marker Score Amount (millions of USD)* % of Total Civil Society ATI DRM Assistance Dedicated to Gender Equality
(Gender is the principal objective) 0.6 3%
(Gender is a significant objective) 2 10%
Total:   13%

*USD Figures are rounded to the nearest million

 

Based on this analysis of the OECD data, we have a clearer – but still incomplete – picture of how ATI’s increasing DRM assistance to civil society is being used. We have little understanding of the impact of these funds.   

We need to continue to assess the impact of civil society in making tax policy and administration more accountable, participatory, and transparent. Data is key – donors and the OECD must ensure that data on donor assistance to civil society for DRM is reported and labeled accurately and that data is disaggregated, especially by age and sex. The analysis in this blog is a first step to outline the trends and contours of donor assistance for civil society engaging in DRM.  

As the Addis Tax Initiative develops its vision for 2020 and beyond, Save the Children continues to emphasize the role of local citizens in shaping tax policy and administration.  

In coming years, we hope that donor agencies will improve investments in country-based NGOs to strengthen local self-reliance, promote fairer tax allocations, and finance pro-development public expenditure. 

[i] Because the OECD continually updates the historical data in the CRS and these analysis were carried out over a period of months, calculations may vary. Like all large datasets, the CRS may also contain labeling and reporting errors that impact accuracy. Our analysis is based on an analysis of the OECD data as presented.

 

Photo credit: Susan Warner / Save the Children

Taxation with Representation: Citizens as Drivers of Accountable Tax Policy

Written by Andrew Wainer, Director, Policy Research  and Sadie Marsman, Research Assistant
Photography credit: Susan Warner / Save the Children

Protests by citizens against their government’s tax systems have not just occurred across cultures and centuries, but have led to revolutions.

In 18th century America, for example, the British crown’s assertion of its right to tax colonists without consent led to the Boston Tea Party and, eventually, the American Revolution. “No taxation without representation” is perhaps that revolution’s most famous slogan. Since then, it’s been played out in countless other parts of the globe.

Throughout history, taxation has been controversial and often dramatically contested. Yet today it is accepted as one of the primary ways for governments to increase domestic revenue in order to better meet the basic needs of citizens.

Save the Children’s new report, Taxation with Representation: Citizens as Drivers of Accountable Tax Policy, analyzes the evidence on citizen tax advocacy in developing countries in order to garner insights, and identify trends, on how civil society organizations (CSOs) contribute to accountable and progressive tax policies within the framework of equitably financing the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

The report, being launched this week in Berlin at a meeting of the Addis Tax Initiative, is intended to:

  • Provide additional guidance to policymakers seeking to support pro-development and accountable DRM in developing countries, and
  • Contribute to the growing evidence base on the role of CSOs in tax policy

A Tax and Governance Virtuous Circle?
Tax policy isn’t just about tallying revenue collection numbers and tax-to-GDP ratios. It’s also about ensuring revenue collection is pro-development, and contributes to enhanced governance. A broad representation of citizens’ voices must be included in that tax policy’s development and execution including marginalized and vulnerable groups.   

To create a tax system that is representative of broad societal goals, factors such as gender, ethnicity, geography and language must all be considered. While technical experts should, and will, continue to play a central role in tax policymaking, domestic resource mobilization (DRM) will fail to achieve its potential as a key source of finance to achieve development goals if it’s pursued without citizen input, and without prioritizing equity.

With this in mind, the report analyzes a series of cases in the research and policy literature on civil society engagement in tax policy at the national and subnational levels. The goals of our analysis are to illustrate what has worked and what is needed to support citizen engagement for more accountable tax policies.

 Citizen Engagement at the Subnational Level: Burundi
A 2014 World Bank study in Rutegama, Burundi, found that fostering partnerships between civil society and local administrators was necessary for successful citizen engagement, given the low levels of civil society capacity and state administrative capacity in fragile contexts.

Capacity building had to happen with citizens and the state, together.

World Bank researchers found that, “Within the Burundi context [it]…must be done in tandem with encouraging state developmental responsiveness.” In Burundi, as in other instances analyzed in the report, international donors–in this case primarily the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) and the German Agency for International Cooperation (GIZ) – facilitated the decentralization process, encouraging engagement between CSOs and local fiscal officials.

In Rutegama, the municipal administrator created a partnership with local civil society, in which they were involved in discussions on budget and tax collection. Burundian law facilitated more equitable participation of women because gender balance is enshrined in law at both the local and national levels.

For example, communes in Burundi are governed by a council of 15 members that must also reflect a degree of gender balance (by law, at least 30% must be women).

For its part, matching the local government commitment, civil society raised awareness among taxpayers on the links of taxation to public expenditure. At the time, the public already had access to budget expenditures, but many citizens were unable to read the documents in French or make sense of the budget’s complicated format, so additional taxpayer education was conducted.

Due to the government’s commitment to transparency and social accountability, and gender equality, citizens placed more trust in their government and were more willing to pay taxes. After the program was implemented in 2010, Rutegama experienced increasingly larger revenue collections each year for the next three years.

Recommendations
Based on the analysis of the country cases, the report presents recommendations on how to support citizen engagement in DRM including:

  • Support subnational-to-national links through donor DRM programming. Donors can build national-level civil society tax advocacy through supporting more developed subnational work. Local level civil society advocacy can be foundational for building broader national campaigns and serve as the training ground for tax policy advocacy.
  • Support government and civil society co-design of tax policy. Engaging civil society and governments together – particularly at the local level – has a track record of success. The citizen-state compact can be strengthened when capacity needs are addressed together, rather than only building the capacity of government.  Confrontations between citizens and government tend to occur when there is no platform to engage on tax issues.
  • Engage in the full budget cycle. Over the last decade, civil society organizations across the world have advocated for effective and equitable provisions of services through the budgeting process. In so doing, they have gained expertise as well as become agents of change able to influence budget allocations at all levels of government. Combining tax advocacy, with budget advocacy, civil society can be more effective in advocating for accountable and equitable revenue collection and spending on public services

To ensure that a tax policy is pro-development, and contributes to enhanced governance and social inclusion, a broad representation of citizens’ voices must be included.  Otherwise, DRM will fail to achieve its potential as a key source of finance for development around the world. We look forward to presenting that case to our ATI partners this week in Berlin.

 

 

Investing in Maternal and Child Health: Development Impact Bonds

Written by Andrew Wainer, Director, Policy Research and Jill Carney, Associate Director Global Health and Development

The global decrease in child and maternal deaths is one of the great achievements in international development in recent decades. Child mortality rates have fallen by more than half, from 12.7 million under-5 deaths in 1990, to 5.6 million in 2016. American leadership and foreign assistance played instrumental roles in this achievement, saving the lives of millions of children around the world

Nevertheless, preventable maternal and child deaths are still too high. Globally, 15,000 children continue to die each day from causes that are often preventable, such as pneumonia, diarrhea, and malaria.

The global health community knows how to reduce maternal, newborn, and child deaths, but a persistent financing gap impedes more progress. Current levels of international development assistance are not enough to achieve the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 3 target of ending preventable child deaths by 2030. According to the World Bank, achieving SDG 3 will require an additional $33 billion annually. To close this gap, development actors are increasingly exploring innovative financing tools that engage the private sector – and unlock new resources.

A new mother cradles her newborn baby in the neonatal ward at Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Malawi. She was being taught the KMC (Kangaroo Mother Care) method to use on her baby. Photo credit: Jonas Gratzer/Save the Children, Feb 2016

Due in part to the SDG financing gap, over the last few years, Save the Children has complemented its policy and advocacy work on bilateral assistance with a focus on identifying alternate ways to close the financing gap for poverty-focused development and humanitarian programs, including maternal, newborn and child survival.

Supported by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation as part of our commitment to researching and advocating for innovative financing tools for child survival, Save the Children produced a report on development impact bonds (DIBs) for maternal and child health that was launched during the 2018 United Nations General Assembly.

This report is part of Save the Children’s focus on ensuring that governments are providing funding for vital services to give children a chance at a bright future – such as health, education and nutrition.  This includes policy and advocacy work to increase domestic resource mobilization at the country level, especially increased public financing for health and education.

DIBs are one financing mechanism through which we can attract private capital to social projects, and for private investors to earn a profit if the development outcome is achieved. By offering a potential profit to investors, plus guaranteeing the security of impact for outcome, DIBs have the long-term potential to attract additional public and private stakeholders to international development. They are analyzed at length in our report, which focuses on two DIBs intended to improve maternal and child health:

Fine-Tuning a new Development Finance Tool
More DIBs are set to be launched in coming years, providing stakeholders with additional cases to observe and gather evidence. In the wake of the launch of the Save the Children report at UNGA73, discussion on the potential and challenges of DIBs has escalated in the United States and globally.

Through our continuing discussions with DIB stakeholders and development finance experts, we’ve continued to hone in on how to make DIBs more efficient and effective. The following are some of the key learnings we’ve gathered though discussions with our DIB research and analysis partners:

Building a DIB is Challenging
Given its complex legal and financial structure, DIBs require more effort design and stand up in comparison with traditional grant-based assistance. Organizations interested in participating in DIBs must be “DIBs ready” – prepared for the patience and flexibility needed to craft a DIB with multiple partners over months and years. Building a DIB is a complex undertaking and service providers need to ensure that their systems and structure are appropriate before embarking on one. It’s also important that stakeholders use the DIB tool because it’s the most appropriate for the development problem being addressed rather than bypassing that analysis and diving into the DIB structure without assessing its appropriateness to addressing the problem.

More Evidence
There are still few completed DIBs and very limited evidence with which to judge them, thereby leaving DIBs as an “open case” as to whether it can help reduce the financing gap for maternal and child survival. More evidence is needed for potential DIB stakeholders to adequately assess risks and benefits. Multiple DIB experts have discussed the need for more transparency and sharing of evaluation data and other learnings. 

More Education
More evidence is a tool for additional education. In spite of growing buzz around the DIBs model, there are still relatively few investors and outcome funders involved in DIBs, in part due to a lack of understanding needed to determine potential risk and reward. Part of the solution is streamlining the DIBs process, where the costs and benefits are explicitly stated to potential future stakeholders. To achieve this, more stakeholders need to be educated on DIBs and results-based performance tools generally. In addition to identifying more outcome funders and investors, explicitly sharing the model’s risks and the incentives in these roles could facilitate broader interest and participation. 

Financing the SDGs
The private sector has the potential to make major contributions to achieving the SDGs, with some estimates that that there is $85 trillion, “parked in long-term investment vehicles, including sovereign wealth funds, pension funds, and insurance funds” that could be harnessed toward development goals.

DIBs are a tool to do just that, but Save the Children’s research on DIBs and our consultation with experts reveals that channeling that private sector funding into development is not easy or quick. The movement from rhetoric on “billions to trillions” to the actual sustained investment of private dollars into development will require new and sometimes uncomfortable partnerships and new ways of analyzing and thinking about development finance.

And it is important to keep in mind that DIBs are one tool among many to finance development. While their introduction has facilitated important conversations on development finance, Save the Children is exploring multiple channels for financing child survival. We’ve conducted research on development impact bonds – a new and mostly untested financing tool—as an example to illustrate the use of alternate sources of financing.

Save the Children is grateful to our DIB research and advocacy partners for lending their hard-earned expertise to us, helping make certain that our analysis and findings are grounded in the complex realities of forging innovative finance solutions to child survival.

Civil Society Surges as a Channel for DRM Assistance Among Addis Tax Initiative Members

Photo credit: Hadil Saleh /Save the Children, Aug 2018Written by Andrew Wainer, Director Policy Research and Nada Adibah, Intern, Policy Research

The percentage of DRM assistance disbursed through civil society and NGO channels surged among Addis Tax Initiative (ATI) members in recent years. In 2015, 4% (6 million) of ATI DRM assistance was channeled through civil society, but in 2017 that increased to 10% (21 million). Furthermore, the amount of DRM disbursed through NGOs and civil society, grew 252%, the most among all channels (see Table 1).  

While seven of the 20 ATI donors contributed to this increase, it was primarily driven by three donors: Norway, the United Kingdom, and the United States which had large increases in the amount of DRM assistance channeled through civil society between 2015 and 2017.

 

 Table 1: Percent Change DRM Disbursements Channel, 2015 to 2017

Channel Change (%)
Public Sector -20
NGOs & Civil Society 252
Public-Private Partnerships (PPP) 186
Multilateral Organizations 42
Teaching Institutions, Research Institutions, Think-Tanks 61
Private Sector Institutions 77*
Other -86

 * OECD CRS values reported only for years 2016 and 2017. Percent change calculated from these two years.

 

This assistance channeled through civil society ranged from grants from the United Kingdom to research institutions to study tax policy in Ghana and Ethiopia to assistance from Norway to support media oversight of the petroleum industry in Tanzania and Uganda.

But even as ATI members increasingly use civil society to disburse DRM assistance, a review of the 2017 OECD Creditor Reporting System data reveals an increase in overall DRM assistance from ATI donors of only 14% from 2015 to 2017 (the latest year available). The total amount of DRM assistance from ATI donors increased from $168 million in 2015 to $192 million in 2017.

The increase in the use of civil society as a channel for DRM assistance is welcome, but as donors, civil society, and developing nation revenue authorities prepare to gather in Berlin in July to review progress on the ATI, the latest OECD data reveal that, while ATI DRM assistance is growing, it is not on pace to reach ATI commitment #1: A collective doubling of donor DRM assistance. Increasing donor support to civil society for engagement in tax policy can foster enhanced governance while also contributing to ATI donors’ goal of doubling DRM assistance by 2020.

US DRM Assistance
The latest OECD data also reveals that US DRM foreign assistance is increasing at a faster rate than the overall rate for ATI members. In 2017, the United States disbursed $48 million for DRM support. This is a 26% increase since 2015, when the US provided $38 million.

Also aligned with the overall ATI trend of increasing percentages of DRM aid being channeled through NGOs and civil society, US DRM foreign assistance was increasingly channeled in this way – at a rate similar to ATI donors overall. Of the $48 million in DRM disbursed by the United States in 2017, 10% (4.8 million) was funneled to civil society, larger than the overall donor rate of disbursing 7% through this channel. This amount is a major increase in using civil society and NGOs for US DRM assistance when compared with 2016 when the US recorded channeling $192,000 – a tiny percentage of its total DRM assistance – through civil society.

DRM Assistance from the Perspective of Recipient Countries
Of the $192 million in DRM assistance ATI donors provided to the developing world in 2017, Africa received the most among any region with $91 million going to DRM – 47% of all ATI DRM assistance. Asia received second largest amount of DRM assistance with $37 million – 19% of all DRM assistance in 2017. Latin America, Europe, and Oceania received much small percentages of DRM assistance (see Table 2).

Table 2: DRM Assistance Provided to the Developing World in 2017

Region Amount Received (in millions USD) Percent of Total DRM Assistance
Europe 9 5%
Africa 91 47%
America 16 8%
Asia 37 19%
Oceania 5 2%
Developing country, unspecified 35 18%

 Save the Children has supported civil society engagement in DRM in Wajir and Bungoma counties, Kenya since early 2017. In recent years Kenya has experienced a surge in DRM funding. In 2017 Kenya received $8.8 million in DRM assistance, an increase of more than 105% compared to 2015 when it received $4.3 million. The large majority of DRM assistance to Kenya is also being channeled through civil society and NGOs. In 2017 $6.5 million of DRM assistance to Kenya – 74% – was provide through this channel.

Solidifying Progress
ATI is moving slowly toward its collective goal of doubling DRM assistance by 2020, but we are encouraged by the increasing role that civil society is playing in DRM– enabling citizens to engage on tax policy and, ideally, hold policymakers accountable for good fiscal governance. Ensuring that developing country ministries of finance and revenue authorities are also meeting their commitments and opening up to citizen input on tax policy will be key to the ATI’s long term success. We also welcome the creation of the ATI database, currently under construction, which will allow for new ways of analyzing and measuring DRM foreign assistance.

In future posts, we will delve into the details and nuances of DRM assistance going through civil society channels in order to better understand where this surge of funding is going, who it’s coming from, and the reason for its rapid increase. 

 

From Bungoma to Paris: Local Citizen Engagement Through the Addis Tax Initiative

Written by Andrew Wainer, Director, Policy Research at Save the Children

The Addis Tax Initiative (ATI) was launched in 2015 in Ethiopia with developing nations as key signatories, but – like other global agreements – it faces challenges translating global dialogue in Berlin, New York and Paris to better tax policy in Nairobi, Monrovia and Tbilisi.

This challenge to operationalize the ATI is daunting, but national-level tax policy and administration is only part of the solution for transforming tax into an engine for financing well-being in developing countries. 

Services including health and education are delivered to citizens at the local level and tax and spending at the sub-national level is where most citizens are impacted by fiscal policy that is either fair or regressive.

To ground its commitment of increased, transparent, and accountable DRM, the ATI is monitoring how developing country governments are increasing domestic revenue for inclusive development. But, so far, analysis of sub-national level domestic resource mobilization (DRM) is largely absent from this analysis. 

The role of sub-national tax authorities is certainly difficult to track, but, to be relevant to the citizens’ ground truth, the should ATI integrate local tax policy and administration.

Bungoma County, Kenya

Even at the national level in Kenya, and other signatory counties, the ATI requires further understanding and integration – it’s not yet well-understood by many fiscal policymakers and implementers. There is a need for increased ownership at the national level.

But Save the Children, working with civil society, small business groups, and county assemblies on DRM in Bungoma County, Kenya, has found that citizens are best able to educate and influence policymakers – using the Addis Tax Initiative banner – at the local level.

Revenue generation capacity at the county level in Kenya remains low, with some reports that it is actually decreasing, even after the country’s 2010 devolution law. But in Bungoma County, motivated citizen groups are filling the gap, helping shape tax policy where local government capacity is low.

Civil society can be helpful intermediaries on local level DRM to both increase tax compliance and contribute to tax policy accountability, transparency, and inclusiveness.

Specifically, Save the Children is working with the Bungoma County Child Rights Network (BCCRN), small and micro-entrepreneurs (including women-owned businesses) and the local country assembly to improve local tax collection, making it more transparent, accountable, and pro-poor. It’s already paying dividends in increased tax compliance.

In Bungoma, the main sources of local revenue include business permits and market fees. The BCCRN started with these existing tax laws, working to increase revenue activities through analysis, advocacy, and stakeholder education, including on the Addis Tax Initiative.

The result is lower market fees, creating rates that are less onerous for small-business owners with slim profit margins, and, at the same time, expanding tax compliance among these groups as taxes are reduced to rates they are better able to pay. Because taxpayers are involved in the policy discussions they are also more bought-in to the policies and apt to comply with tax regulations they played a part in shaping.

This was accompanied with increasing rates on local supermarkets, who enjoyed large profit margins and were undertaxed, according to local citizen analysis. These civil society proposals were taken up by the local county assembly.

The ATI and Progress on DRM in Kenya

Civil society in Bungoma County is just getting started with tax policy advocacy, but Kenya, at all levels, is showing signs of progress. Further training could help civil society to partner with local government to enhance property taxes – another source of local revenue that is badly underutilized in Kenya.

And while civil society can support local tax authorities “from below” there is also a need for assistance from and alignment with national tax bodies “from above” such as the Kenya Revenue Authority. County level tax officials need national guidance on revenue generation strategies and medium- and long-term tax policy plans.

To maintain progress, the Kenya government and other ATI stakeholders should make advancements in two areas:

  • Support local civil society. Civil society groups are crucial intermediaries between local government and citizens. Trusted local organizations can build trust and participation between local tax collection authorities and tax payers, improving tax compliance, fairness, and accountability.
  • Support for sub-national DRM. Most citizens encounter the impacts of taxing and spending at the local level. Increasing domestic revenues at this level can enhance budgets for local public service delivery. ATI should include sub-national domestic resource mobilization into its mandate, analysis and goals.

Civil society is already making a difference for tax policy and administration. The ATI would be wise to tap into this local source of change to ensure that its global discussions make a difference at the community level.

 

 

 

A Case for Gender Equality on this Day and Every Other

Written by Carolyn Miles

Today, on International Day of the Girl, the world celebrates the many things a girl can be – a doctor, an artist, a judge. Lean in. Dream big. Those are the empowering messages we all tell the girls in our lives.

But despite remarkable progress in some quarters, gender inequality and disempowerment still persist and are a root cause of many barriers to sustainable development around the world. Discrimination against girls critically impacts children’s ability to survive, learn, and live a life free from violence.

Without a strong start in life, a girl’s future is likely to be determined for her. Gender inequality leaves entire regions behind: according to the United Nations, Sub-Saharan Africa alone loses US $95 billion per year due to gender inequality. As a universal human right and a means to overcoming poverty and discrimination, gender equality must remain at the center of our U.S. foreign policy and development assistance.

The journey of nations to meet their own development needs depends on breaking down the barriers to enhance powerful contributions of women and girls. To improve development outcomes everywhere, the U.S. government must invest in gender analysis to look at the differences between progress for girls and boys. Only then can we identify and work to transform the root causes of gender inequality, including addressing discriminatory social norms and institutions, as well as advocating for and fostering legislation and policies that promote gender equality.

Child marriage is a good example of a harmful practice that affects not only girls but whole societies.  Around 1 in 5 women and girls in the world today were married as children – 1 in 3 of those were married before the age of 15. To a policymaker seeking to put an end to this, legal interventions may seem like the answer. But while they’re a key piece of the puzzle, new analysis by Save the Children shows that a startling 51 million child marriages could be averted by achieving universal secondary education for girls.1  This is what putting gender equality at the center of all areas of foreign policy and international assistance looks like: Reducing the harmful ways in which gender inequality combines with other factors to make it so much harder for girls to reach their potential.

The U.S. State Department and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) need robust funding and staffing to continue making critical investments in peace and security, economic development, education, nutrition, healthcare, and more. But if gender equality and women’s and girl’s empowerment aren’t at the center of all of these, the results just won’t be what we all want for children.

USAID has found that when 10 percent more girls go to school, a nation’s GDP increases, on average, by 3 percent. That’s something they wouldn’t have seen without a gender equality approach. Without sex- and age-disaggregated data, they wouldn’t even know that of the 25 million children currently out of primary school around the world, 15 million are girls.

Without gender analysis, they would overlook many of the reasons: boys’ education is often prioritized, girls face an increased risk of violence between home and school and from their teachers, and girls who marry before they reach adulthood almost always abandon their formal education.

Salam, pictured here with her young son Mesfin, was able to leave the abusive marriage she was forced to enter at age 13. Save the Children’s “Keep it Real Program” supported her return to school, where she rose to the top of her class.

But what about the other 134 million girls who will be married as children between 2018 and 2030 if the world doesn’t act? They too can become teachers, journalists, and entrepreneurs, but both research and experience tell us they’re more likely to become mothers, before their bodies are ready for it, or experience domestic violence. An investment in gender equality and girls’ empowerment yields tremendous results – not only in the individual lives of women and girls, but for the future we all share.

That’s why we at Save the Children have put gender equality at the top of our agenda.  On this International Day of the Girl, tell the U.S. government to do the same.

Share this post, check out our many others on Twitter under #SheCanBe, #EndChildMarriage, and #DayOfTheGirl, or join us in taking action!

 

1. Working Together to End Child Marriage 

5 HARMFUL LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF FAMILY DETENTION ON CHILDREN

5 Harmful Long-Term Effects of Family Detention on Children

This post originally posted by Save the Children Action Network.

Written by Mira Tignor

It is difficult to imagine hearing the panicked cries of children being separated from their families, but this is the reality happening at the U.S.-Mexico border.

The separation of migrant families at the border has been the subject of intense media scrutiny and outrage. Even if the issue of family separation were to be resolved, children are still negatively impacted by indefinite family detention, with their well-being at risk.

Below are 5 harmful long-term effects of family detention on children:

  1. Harms family relationships and stability – Family separation can permanently damage familial relationships, even after reunification. Many children don’t understand why the separation is happening, and feel that their parent has abandoned them. The American Academy of Pediatrics explains that “detention itself undermines parental authority and capacity to respond to their children’s needs,” and results in fraught parent-child relationships.
  2. Damages psycho-social development and well-being – Detention involves experiencing a loss of control, isolation from the outside world and detachment from community and culture. These experiences are harmful for people of all ages, but have a higher impact on children because their brains are still developing. The president of the American Academy of Pediatrics said that detention affects children’s brain chemistry in a way that is comparable to child abuse. Research has shown much higher rates of depression, anxiety, PTSD and suicidal thoughts in children who have been detained.
  3. Worsened school performance – Detained children often experience impaired or delayed cognitive development, which affects concentration and other abilities that are crucial to academic success. This makes keeping up with the age-appropriate reading and math level especially difficult for detained children. Even once their period of detention is over, their learning capabilities are already behind those of their peers.
  4. Poor sleep quality – The lack of bedding for children sleeping on concrete floors, coupled with the mental stress they are under, often results in sleeping problems such as insomnia, sleepwalking, bedwetting and night terrors. Poor sleep quality, in turn, can have detrimental effects on physical and mental health.
  5. Risk of exploitation and abuse – Children are at higher risk of being exploited or abused while in detention centers. There have been reports of privately run detention centers paying extremely low wages to detainees for their labor, as well as experiences of physical and sexual abuse from guards and other officers. Some detention centers have been reported to use severe disciplinary measures to control children’s behavior, including drugging children without consent.

In order to help children address these consequences and prevent more children from having to experience them, we must contact our members of Congress and urge them to put the best interests of children first.

YOUR SUPPORT CAN MAKE THE DIFFERENCE.

ABC News “This Week with George Stephanopoulos” Interviews Carolyn Miles on the U.S. Border Crisis

On Sunday, June 24, CEO and Save the Children President & CEO Carolyn Miles and International Rescue Committee President David Miliband were guests on ABC News “This Week with George Stephanopoulos.” On the heels of World Refugee Day, their discussion focused on the treatment of immigrant families at the southern border and the worldwide refugee crisis.

Carolyn Miles spoke to the trauma that separating a child from his or her family inflicts. Her words supported the grave concern Save the Children has for the treatment and well-being of children from Mexico and Central American nations who are in the custody of the United States government after crossing the U.S.-Mexico border.

Top of mind is also the Presidential Executive Order which Save the Children believes simply replaces family separation with indefinite family detention. ‘The trauma that happens to children is very real,” Carolyn Miles explained. “It’s psychological. It’s physical. It’s lasting. You see that what happens to kids when they’re separating from their families in these kind of crisis is something that stays with them.”

Carolyn Miles also shared a personal story of a boy she met while travelling in El Salvador. Working closely with local communities and organizations in El Salvador, Save the Children designs Sponsorship programs to help vulnerable children from early childhood to early adulthood — giving them a healthy start in life, the opportunity to learn and protection from harm along the way.

Watch the full segment, visit ABC News “This Week with George Stephanopoulos” and sign Save the Children’s petition telling President Trump that we have ZERO TOLERANCE for policies that do not put children’s interests first.

Why We Recognize World Refugee Day

Around the world, children and families are fleeing their homelands to escape oppression, violence and ongoing conflicts. These people seek safety and shelter in countries other than their own and become refugees. There are currently more than 22 million refugees around the globe – and those numbers grow by the day. More than half of all refugees are children, whose childhoods are at risk of ending too soon.

World Refugee Day brings attention to the ongoing plight of refugees and what can be done to help them. It was first established by the UN General Assembly in 2001. World Refugee Day offers us a chance to raise awareness in our own communities about the conditions endured by millions of refugees every day. Together, we have an opportunity to show how everyone can help make a lasting impact on the lives of refugees in need.

A Childhood Lost
Today, on World Refugee Day, it is more important than ever to remember that all children deserve safety, an education and a chance at a future.

Desperate circumstances force refugee children into hazardous work. Child labor has been identified as a major barrier to education in many countries currently experiencing conflict or recently emerging from conflict.1 It is also reportedly on the rise for both Syrian refugee children and host communities.2 In Jordan, for example, a recent survey of the resident child population (which included migrants and refugee households) found child labor rates have roughly doubled compared to pre-crisis figures. 3

More than half of the world’s refugee children are not in school—forced from their homes, education and everything they once knew, their childhoods cut short. Education is a necessity and provides hope and opportunities for the future, as well as a sense of safety, stability and normalcy for children overcoming traumatic events.

Child marriage is reportedly on the rise for girls in Syria and among Syrian refugee populations.4 Marriage of children under 18 years old is not a new phenomenon in Syria. However, with the protracted nature of the crisis, child marriage has evolved from a cultural practice to a coping mechanism.5

An Uncertain Future

Suffering violence, witnessing violence or fearing violence can cause lifelong disabilities and deep emotional trauma. Separation from family members and economic hardship can expose girls and boys to exploitation in the forms of child labor, child marriage, sexual violence and recruitment into use by armed groups.6

But the less visible dangers for children in conflict are caused by lack of food and the collapse of essential services such as health care, sanitation and education.7

Malnutrition takes a toll on the immune system and it is particularly severe for growing children. Refugee children are more vulnerable to succumb to such preventable and treatable conditions such as pneumonia and diarrhea, which account for nearly one in five deaths in children under the age of five.

Inadequate nutrition during childhood can lead to impaired growth, cognitive impairment, and increased risk of mortality. A lack of to basic healthcare causes needless death and suffering for so many young children who need a healthy head start in life.

An Opportunity to Help
When refugees are displaced from their homes, it’s often the children who suffer the most.

Save the Children is working around the clock to ensure refugee children and their families are supported in their basic human needs.

We work nonstop supporting refugee girls and boys, helping them survive, and thrive. Whether in camps, on the move or in host communities, our caring staff help refugee children from Syria, South Sudan, Burundi and other countries marred by violence and persecution.

 

1. Justino, Patricia. “Barriers to Education in Conflict-Affected Countries and Policy Opportunities.”

2. UNICEF. Preparing for the Future of Children and Youth in Syria and the Region through Education: London One Year On: Brussels Conference Education Report. (April 2017) p.5.

3. University of Jordan. National Child Labour Survey 2016 of Jordan. (Amman: 2016)

4. UNICEF. Preparing for the Future of Children and Youth in Syria and the Region through Education: London One Year On, Brussels Conference Education Report, April 2017, p. 5.”

5. Whole of Syria Protection Sector. 2018 Protection Needs Overview V2. (2017)

6. 2018 End of Childhood Index (Amman: 2016)

7. 2018 End of Childhood Index (Amman: 2016)

Refugee Children Are Missing Out On School

To escape violence, hunger and harm, refugee children leave everything behind. Too often, that means they lose their education as well. Refugee children urgently need access to safe places to learn, grow and play.

On World Refugee Day, and on every day, Save the Children is working around the clock to ensure refugee children and their families are supported in their basic human needs. We work nonstop supporting refugee girls and boys, helping them survive and thrive.

In our second annual End of Childhood Index, we take a hard look at the events that rob children of their childhoods and prevent them from reaching their full potential, including being out of school.

Refugee children are 5 times more likely to be out of school than non-refugee children.1 Girls living in countries affected by conflict are 2.5 times more likely to be out of school than boys.2 Without education, displaced children face bleak futures. Especially in times of crisis, education can offer a child stability, protection and the chance to gain critical knowledge and skills. Schools can also serve as social spaces that bring together family and community members, and create bonds of trust, healing and support. Failing to provide education for displaced children can be hugely damaging, not only for children but also for their families and societies, perpetuating cycles of poverty and conflict.

 

YOUR SUPPORT CAN MAKE THE DIFFERENCE. MAKE A DONATION TODAY TO SUPPORT OUR RELIEF EFFORTS FOR REFUGEE CHILDREN.

1. 2018 End of Childhood Index

2. Nicolai, Susan, et al. Education Cannot Wait: Proposing a Fund for Education in Emergencies. (ODI: London: 2016) 122 UNESCO. Education for All Global