Civil Society Surges as a Channel for DRM Assistance Among Addis Tax Initiative Members

Photo credit: Hadil Saleh /Save the Children, Aug 2018Written by Andrew Wainer, Director Policy Research and Nada Adibah, Intern, Policy Research

The percentage of DRM assistance disbursed through civil society and NGO channels surged among Addis Tax Initiative (ATI) members in recent years. In 2015, 4% (6 million) of ATI DRM assistance was channeled through civil society, but in 2017 that increased to 10% (21 million). Furthermore, the amount of DRM disbursed through NGOs and civil society, grew 252%, the most among all channels (see Table 1).  

While seven of the 20 ATI donors contributed to this increase, it was primarily driven by three donors: Norway, the United Kingdom, and the United States which had large increases in the amount of DRM assistance channeled through civil society between 2015 and 2017.

 

 Table 1: Percent Change DRM Disbursements Channel, 2015 to 2017

Channel Change (%)
Public Sector -20
NGOs & Civil Society 252
Public-Private Partnerships (PPP) 186
Multilateral Organizations 42
Teaching Institutions, Research Institutions, Think-Tanks 61
Private Sector Institutions 77*
Other -86

 * OECD CRS values reported only for years 2016 and 2017. Percent change calculated from these two years.

 

This assistance channeled through civil society ranged from grants from the United Kingdom to research institutions to study tax policy in Ghana and Ethiopia to assistance from Norway to support media oversight of the petroleum industry in Tanzania and Uganda.

But even as ATI members increasingly use civil society to disburse DRM assistance, a review of the 2017 OECD Creditor Reporting System data reveals an increase in overall DRM assistance from ATI donors of only 14% from 2015 to 2017 (the latest year available). The total amount of DRM assistance from ATI donors increased from $168 million in 2015 to $192 million in 2017.

The increase in the use of civil society as a channel for DRM assistance is welcome, but as donors, civil society, and developing nation revenue authorities prepare to gather in Berlin in July to review progress on the ATI, the latest OECD data reveal that, while ATI DRM assistance is growing, it is not on pace to reach ATI commitment #1: A collective doubling of donor DRM assistance. Increasing donor support to civil society for engagement in tax policy can foster enhanced governance while also contributing to ATI donors’ goal of doubling DRM assistance by 2020.

US DRM Assistance
The latest OECD data also reveals that US DRM foreign assistance is increasing at a faster rate than the overall rate for ATI members. In 2017, the United States disbursed $48 million for DRM support. This is a 26% increase since 2015, when the US provided $38 million.

Also aligned with the overall ATI trend of increasing percentages of DRM aid being channeled through NGOs and civil society, US DRM foreign assistance was increasingly channeled in this way – at a rate similar to ATI donors overall. Of the $48 million in DRM disbursed by the United States in 2017, 10% (4.8 million) was funneled to civil society, larger than the overall donor rate of disbursing 7% through this channel. This amount is a major increase in using civil society and NGOs for US DRM assistance when compared with 2016 when the US recorded channeling $192,000 – a tiny percentage of its total DRM assistance – through civil society.

DRM Assistance from the Perspective of Recipient Countries
Of the $192 million in DRM assistance ATI donors provided to the developing world in 2017, Africa received the most among any region with $91 million going to DRM – 47% of all ATI DRM assistance. Asia received second largest amount of DRM assistance with $37 million – 19% of all DRM assistance in 2017. Latin America, Europe, and Oceania received much small percentages of DRM assistance (see Table 2).

Table 2: DRM Assistance Provided to the Developing World in 2017

Region Amount Received (in millions USD) Percent of Total DRM Assistance
Europe 9 5%
Africa 91 47%
America 16 8%
Asia 37 19%
Oceania 5 2%
Developing country, unspecified 35 18%

 Save the Children has supported civil society engagement in DRM in Wajir and Bungoma counties, Kenya since early 2017. In recent years Kenya has experienced a surge in DRM funding. In 2017 Kenya received $8.8 million in DRM assistance, an increase of more than 105% compared to 2015 when it received $4.3 million. The large majority of DRM assistance to Kenya is also being channeled through civil society and NGOs. In 2017 $6.5 million of DRM assistance to Kenya – 74% – was provide through this channel.

Solidifying Progress
ATI is moving slowly toward its collective goal of doubling DRM assistance by 2020, but we are encouraged by the increasing role that civil society is playing in DRM– enabling citizens to engage on tax policy and, ideally, hold policymakers accountable for good fiscal governance. Ensuring that developing country ministries of finance and revenue authorities are also meeting their commitments and opening up to citizen input on tax policy will be key to the ATI’s long term success. We also welcome the creation of the ATI database, currently under construction, which will allow for new ways of analyzing and measuring DRM foreign assistance.

In future posts, we will delve into the details and nuances of DRM assistance going through civil society channels in order to better understand where this surge of funding is going, who it’s coming from, and the reason for its rapid increase. 

 

Providing for an Entire Extended Family in Yemen – A Mother’s Story

Drawing to illustrate the blog post provided by Sukaina Sharafuddin, Save the Children’s Communications Officer based in Yemen. Photo credit: Takayo Akiyama | Save the Children, Feb 2019

Illustration by Takayo Akiyama, Save the Children

This is the third of a three-part blog series written by a mother named Sukaina who is living and raising her young son in Yemen. Sukaina works for Save the Children in her home country, which has been at war since 2015. 

The war has changed everything for me, my family and families across Yemen. So many have left.

My husband used to have a good job, but he lost it when the economy crashed. He has a degree. He speaks English well, but right now he goes out every day trying to find a job that pays. It has been more than two years since public servants, public school teachers and doctors have been paid. 

My brother is a dentist, but now he teaches Biology at a high school. We are just glad he found a job at a private school that gives salaries to teachers. My cousin used to have an excellent job as a Finance Officer. The company had to shut down when the war started. Now it has been four years and he is desperate to find any kind of job to look after his wife and two daughters. I worry about him – his face has gone pale and he is just exhausted, worrying every day about how to feed his girls.

People like me, who are lucky enough to still have a job, support their whole extended family. I support my parents, my brother’s family, my grandmother, and my cousin’s family. Although the support I provide them is very basic and is barely enough, it is better than nothing. Everything in the shops is so expensive. I used to buy diapers without thinking about it. Not now. They are a luxury item. Many families use plastic bags or cloths in children’s underwear for their newborn babies, because they cannot afford the price of diapers.

Transport, hospital, schools, nurseries – everything is breaking down.

Over past six months, I’ve taken my son to seven different nurseries. Often, it is overcrowded. He comes home dirty, because there is only one carer for every 10 children. I’m looking for a new nursery, but I want it to be close to my work, because when the airstrikes start, I need to be able to run there to get him to a safe place.

A few months ago, we had the chance to leave Yemen. My husband traveled to Malaysia and found a great job. I was planning on joining him. But in the end, I asked him to come back. I’m sure you’re wondering, ‘Why?’

Everyone keeps abandoning Yemen. I can’t. I am the provider for my entire family. I can’t abandon them. I can’t abandon my country. I figured that it will be mentally exhausting for me and I will find no joy living elsewhere, knowing that my country and my family and friends are struggling to survive.

That is why I am still here.

What hurts the most is the feeling that we have been neglected by the outside world. I am grateful to Save the Children and their supporters for not forgetting us. Seeing the work we do in Yemen is a great relief for me.

 

To learn more about the work Save the Children is doing in Yemen, visit our website.

YOUR SUPPORT CAN MAKE THE DIFFERENCE FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES IN YEMEN. PLEASE DONATE TO THE YEMEN CHILD’S RELIEF FUND TODAY!

Giving Birth as Bombs are Falling – A Mother’s Story

Drawing to illustrate the blog post provided by Sukaina Sharafuddin, Save the Children’s Communications Officer based in Yemen. Photo credit: Takayo Akiyama | Save the Children, Feb 2019

Illustration by Takayo Akiyama, Save the Children

This is the second of a three-part blog series written by a mother named Sukaina who is living and raising her young son in Yemen. Sukaina works for Save the Children in her home country, which has been at war since 2015. 

 

When I think about my son, I get tears in my eyes. He is three and all he has ever known is war.

This is what happened the night he was born.

It was midnight when my contractions started. We had to go to three different hospitals before we found one where they had electricity. There were airstrikes all around – it was so scary. In the end, I needed a C-section and I asked to have a general anesthetic because I didn’t want to hear the sound of bombs when my son was born.

So war has been part of his life, right from the start. I feel like it has stolen his childhood away. He is three years old! He wants to go out and explore, but we have to keep him indoors where it is safer. He can’t play with water outdoors because he could get cholera. Or play football in the street because it is too dangerous.

This isn’t what I want for him.

Before the war, we used to have big family gatherings. I loved them. Everyone would eat together. The kids would play – it was such a happy time. Now, all we talk about is the war.

We are exhausted. We are tired of crying. We are tired of war. All we want is to have a safe life where our children could live an ordinary life.

To learn more about the work Save the Children is doing in Yemen, visit our website.

YOUR SUPPORT CAN MAKE THE DIFFERENCE FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES IN YEMEN. PLEASE DONATE TO THE YEMEN CHILD’S RELIEF FUND TODAY!

Staying Calm for the Sake of Her Son – A Mother’s Story

Drawing to illustrate the blog post provided by Sukaina Sharafuddin, Save the Children’s Communications Officer based in Yemen. Photo credit: Takayo Akiyama | Save the Children, Feb 2019

Illustration by Takayo Akiyama, Save the Children

This is the first of a three-part blog series written by a mother named Sukaina who is living and raising her young son in Yemen. Sukaina works for Save the Children in her home country, which has been at war since 2015. 

 

It is morning, but as I write this blog post, I am already thinking about what will happen tonight. Will there be airstrikes? It was quiet for the past couple of months, but lately airstrikes have resumed.

I remember how excited we were when we moved into this apartment – me, my husband and my son. It’s on the ninth floor! Which means that we have to take the stairs every now and then because electricity is not always available. My apartment views over Sana’a (that’s the capital of Yemen) are amazing, but then the airstrikes started again on the night we moved in. There were four airstrikes that targeted the same neighborhood where my mom and my handicapped grandmother lived. I called my mom and I asked her to stay away from the windows and to be careful. I couldn’t sleep and I was worried about her, until she texted me three hours later saying everything was OK.

Now, whenever the airstrikes happen, I lie with my little boy – he is three years old – and his one-eyed cuddly sheep and we cuddle until it is over. We stay where we are because this building has no shelter. Even if we ran down the stairs – nine floors, remember – there would be nowhere to go.

Sometimes, we put on headphones and play loud music to drown out the noise.  At other times, we just listen to the sounds of the planes overhead. My little boy is so funny. He actually loves planes and carries a small orange airplane everywhere he goes. Every time an aircraft hover over, he gets all excited and jumps up and down. He says, “Whoah, let’s go see the airplane!” but I pull him away from the windows, because we don’t have any functioning airports here, so I know airplanes mean one thing: bombs. When I hear them approach, I think, “This might be the end”.

I try to stay calm for my son. On the inside, I’m completely panicking, worrying about how on earth we will get out of here if we get hit. Somehow children always feel your stress. My son tells me, “Mummy smile. Mummy, be happy don’t be sad!”

So be happy  is what I try to do. Even though my country is at war, bombs are falling, and people are going hungry, I try to smile and be happy for my son.

Think of us tonight when you go to sleep – without the sound of airstrikes or the fear a bomb will wipe you out.

 


Civilians fleeing violence face life-threatening risks the moment they embark on their journeys. The most immediate dangers are death or injury due to explosive weapons, which have been used indiscriminately by all parties to the conflict with little regard for their legal obligation to protect civilians in conflict.

If displaced families manage to survive their dangerous journeys and avoid airstrikes and shelling to reach relative safety, they face further difficulties in strained host communities or in camps lacking in adequate food supplies and basic sanitation and hygiene. This puts young children at risk of malnutrition and disease in a country where the health system has all but collapsed and some 14 million people are on the brink of starvation. Save the Children estimates 85,000 children have already died from extreme hunger and disease since 2015.

To learn more about the work Save the Children is doing in Yemen, visit our website.

YOUR SUPPORT CAN MAKE THE DIFFERENCE FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES IN NEED. PLEASE DONATE TO THE YEMEN CHILD’S RELIEF FUND TODAY!

A mother in Kenya holds her newborn baby. Photo credit: Allan Gichigi/ Save the Children

5 priorities for involving parents and families in the care of small and sick newborns

Written by Mary Kinney, Senior Specialist, Global Evidence and Advocacy, Saving Newborn Lives at Save the Children 

Globally, nearly 30 million babies are born too soon, too small or become sick every year and need specialized care to survive. This staggering number was published in the report, Survive and Thrive: Transforming care for every small and sick newborn, by UNICEF, the World Health Organization, Save the Children and other partners at the end of 2018. Most of these babies can survive and live without major complications with quality and nurturing care.

Evidence indicates that involving parents and families or other caregivers in the care of the small and sick newborns benefits both the infants and parents including higher breastfeeding rates, earlier discharge from the hospital, increased weight gain, improved neurodevelopment, reduced parental stress and anxiety, and improved health-related knowledge and beliefs among parents and communities.

Here are five priorities from the report for involving parents and families in the care of small and sick newborns during hospitalization:

Promote Zero Separation

Evidence shows that the well-being and survival of both mother and newborn are inextricably linked and require a coordinated, integrated approach. This not only optimizes their health but also promotes greater efficiency, lowers costs and reduces the duplication of resources. For example, mother’s presence is crucial to establish breastfeeding and to promote Kangaroo Mother Care. Promoting zero separation reduces the risk for short- and long-term health and social problems, including parental depression and anxiety.

Intentionally Engage Men

While women have a unique role as mothers, evidence also shows that men also have a key role in the care of newborns, as partners/husbands, fathers, caregivers and community members. Men often determine health care seeking as well as provide care to the newborn and mother. Health services should accommodate men to accompany their partners, including service hours, physical space and privacy for care visits.

Involve Parents in the Care During Hospitalization

Parents or other caregivers make unique contributions by being able to observe, monitor and provide care to their small and sick newborns (when appropriate, under supervision and in partnership with the health-care team). A recent randomized control trial found that parental involvement during the inpatient neonatal intensive care benefits newborn health outcomes, including infant weight gain and increased frequency of exclusive breastmilk feeding at discharge, as well as a boon to parental mental health. Interventions, such as Kangaroo Mother Care, empowers families to care for their small newborns and shortens their length of stay in the hospital.

Practice Family-Centered Care

Family-centered care for small and sick newborns has a growing evidence base with demonstrated benefits for infants (such as weight gain and neurodevelopmental progress) as well as parents (such as decreased parental stress and anxiety and increased caregiving efficacy). This approach implements four basic principles: dignity and respect; information sharing; participation; and collaboration, and is recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Hospitals and communities should provide space at the facility or nearby for parents or family members, as needed.

Empower Parents

Parents are powerful agents of change for small and sick newborn care supporting other parents and influencing policy and programs. Support forums for parents, including parent-led, peer-to-peer and health professional-led groups, improve the home environment, parental mental health and parental confidence in caring for their child. Parent advocacy and support organizations raise awareness and share their experiences to help others in the same situation through events like World Prematurity Day.

 

Thank to the generous support of our donors, Save the Children has a long-standing experience promoting family engagement in newborn care, such as with Kangaroo Mother Care, demand creation for community-based newborn care, and quality improvement activities. In order to transform care for small and sick newborns, intentional efforts must be made to involve parents, and we remain committed to this effort as part of our broader approach to improve maternal and newborn health. That means that together, we have the chance to make a lifetime of change for millions of newborn babies.

To learn more about the work Save the Children has done to save newborn lives, visit our website.

Get involved by donating your birthday and help a baby live to see their first birthday – and many more. DONATE YOUR BIRTHDAY TODAY!

From Bungoma to Paris: Local Citizen Engagement Through the Addis Tax Initiative

Written by Andrew Wainer, Director, Policy Research at Save the Children

The Addis Tax Initiative (ATI) was launched in 2015 in Ethiopia with developing nations as key signatories, but – like other global agreements – it faces challenges translating global dialogue in Berlin, New York and Paris to better tax policy in Nairobi, Monrovia and Tbilisi.

This challenge to operationalize the ATI is daunting, but national-level tax policy and administration is only part of the solution for transforming tax into an engine for financing well-being in developing countries. 

Services including health and education are delivered to citizens at the local level and tax and spending at the sub-national level is where most citizens are impacted by fiscal policy that is either fair or regressive.

To ground its commitment of increased, transparent, and accountable DRM, the ATI is monitoring how developing country governments are increasing domestic revenue for inclusive development. But, so far, analysis of sub-national level domestic resource mobilization (DRM) is largely absent from this analysis. 

The role of sub-national tax authorities is certainly difficult to track, but, to be relevant to the citizens’ ground truth, the should ATI integrate local tax policy and administration.

Bungoma County, Kenya

Even at the national level in Kenya, and other signatory counties, the ATI requires further understanding and integration – it’s not yet well-understood by many fiscal policymakers and implementers. There is a need for increased ownership at the national level.

But Save the Children, working with civil society, small business groups, and county assemblies on DRM in Bungoma County, Kenya, has found that citizens are best able to educate and influence policymakers – using the Addis Tax Initiative banner – at the local level.

Revenue generation capacity at the county level in Kenya remains low, with some reports that it is actually decreasing, even after the country’s 2010 devolution law. But in Bungoma County, motivated citizen groups are filling the gap, helping shape tax policy where local government capacity is low.

Civil society can be helpful intermediaries on local level DRM to both increase tax compliance and contribute to tax policy accountability, transparency, and inclusiveness.

Specifically, Save the Children is working with the Bungoma County Child Rights Network (BCCRN), small and micro-entrepreneurs (including women-owned businesses) and the local country assembly to improve local tax collection, making it more transparent, accountable, and pro-poor. It’s already paying dividends in increased tax compliance.

In Bungoma, the main sources of local revenue include business permits and market fees. The BCCRN started with these existing tax laws, working to increase revenue activities through analysis, advocacy, and stakeholder education, including on the Addis Tax Initiative.

The result is lower market fees, creating rates that are less onerous for small-business owners with slim profit margins, and, at the same time, expanding tax compliance among these groups as taxes are reduced to rates they are better able to pay. Because taxpayers are involved in the policy discussions they are also more bought-in to the policies and apt to comply with tax regulations they played a part in shaping.

This was accompanied with increasing rates on local supermarkets, who enjoyed large profit margins and were undertaxed, according to local citizen analysis. These civil society proposals were taken up by the local county assembly.

The ATI and Progress on DRM in Kenya

Civil society in Bungoma County is just getting started with tax policy advocacy, but Kenya, at all levels, is showing signs of progress. Further training could help civil society to partner with local government to enhance property taxes – another source of local revenue that is badly underutilized in Kenya.

And while civil society can support local tax authorities “from below” there is also a need for assistance from and alignment with national tax bodies “from above” such as the Kenya Revenue Authority. County level tax officials need national guidance on revenue generation strategies and medium- and long-term tax policy plans.

To maintain progress, the Kenya government and other ATI stakeholders should make advancements in two areas:

  • Support local civil society. Civil society groups are crucial intermediaries between local government and citizens. Trusted local organizations can build trust and participation between local tax collection authorities and tax payers, improving tax compliance, fairness, and accountability.
  • Support for sub-national DRM. Most citizens encounter the impacts of taxing and spending at the local level. Increasing domestic revenues at this level can enhance budgets for local public service delivery. ATI should include sub-national domestic resource mobilization into its mandate, analysis and goals.

Civil society is already making a difference for tax policy and administration. The ATI would be wise to tap into this local source of change to ensure that its global discussions make a difference at the community level.

 

 

 

Save the Children Team in Yemen Recognized for Family Planning Program Achievements in a Humanitarian Setting

Written by Carolyn Miles, President & CEO, Save the Children

Yemen is currently experiencing the largest humanitarian crisis in the world. More than two-thirds of the population is in need of humanitarian assistance, with one-third in acute need. Of the 22.2 million people in need, more than five million are women of reproductive age, including an estimated half a million pregnant women. Before the current crisis escalated in March 2015, the average fertility rate was four children per woman and the lifetime risk of maternal death was one in sixty. In only 30 other countries do women face a greater chance of dying due to complications of pregnancy or during childbirth. Access to family planning is limited with only 20 percent of women using a modern contraceptive method and a high unmet need for contraception of 33 percent.

In the dire context in Yemen, Save the Children staff work tirelessly to support children and their families, and we are so pleased that our family planning team that includes was recognized for the work they do in the face of tremendous adversity. At the International Conference on Family Planning, our Yemen team was awarded an Excellence in Leadership for Family Planning Award for their “significant contributions to the family planning field.”

Since the beginning of 2013, and through the escalation of the crisis, our reproductive health program has reached nearly 60,000 new family planning users through support to 16 health facilities in Hodeida and Lahj Governorates through funding from private foundation. The program has also expanded access to long-acting reversible contraceptives (intrauterine devices and implants) that are more effective than other methods and are often a good choice in humanitarian settings where supply chains may be disrupted. This high quality work was leveraged to secure a new two-year award for Save the Children from the U.S. Agency for International Development to strengthen family planning services in Yemen.

In addition to the recognition of our Yemen team, other Save the Children teams from Egypt humanitarian response for Urban Refugees in Cairo and Mali were recognized for their excellent work by winning “best poster” awards during the conference. Our submission was one of the twelve (out of 325 applications) named a finalist of the Quality Innovation Challenge sponsored by the Packard Foundation for a concept to pilot a digital, interactive contraceptive decision-making tool for young people in acute humanitarian emergencies in Somalia and Yemen. Through 41 posters and presentations, our staff demonstrated the positive impact our family planning programs have on the lives of children, adolescent girls, women and their families around the globe.

To learn more about how family planning saves lives and our presence at the International Conference on Family Planning, click here.

Adolescents and HIV: how we can create an AIDS-free generation

Written by Dr. Kechi Achebe MD, MPH, Senior Director, HIV/AIDS & TB, Save the Children US

World AIDS Day is held on the 1st December each year and is an opportunity for people worldwide to unite in the fight against HIV, show their support for people living with HIV and to commemorate people who have died. It is also an opportunity to remind the public and Governments that HIV has not gone away – there is still a vital need to increase awareness/education, access to testing and treatment, as well as fight prejudice.

Globally there are an estimated 36.9 million people living with HIV, as of 2017. 35.4 million people have also died of HIV or AIDS since the start of the epidemic, making it one of the most destructive pandemics in history. While scientific advances have been made in HIV treatment and this is very encouraging, there were still 1.8 million people who became newly infected with HIV in 2017 globally.

More saddening is the impact of HIV on adolescents. Currently, over 30% of all new HIV infections globally are estimated to occur among youth ages 15 to 25 years. Young people (10 to 24 years) and adolescents (10 to 19 years), especially young women and young key populations, continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV. There were 1.8 million children <15 years living with HIV in 2017 globally, while in 2016, 2.1 million people aged between 10 and 19 years were living with HIV and 260,000 became newly infected with the virus. AIDS is now the leading cause of death among young people in Africa and the second leading cause of death among young people worldwide.

As we commemorate the 30th World AIDS Day, Save the Children is making a global call for increased access to HIV prevention education, testing and treatment to adolescents. Save the Children is also joining UNAIDS and the global community to call for increased access to HIV testing and increased uptake of HIV testing, even amongst adolescents. This is to ensure that the 9.4 million people around the world who are unaware of their HIV-positive status can access treatment and that people who are HIV-negative can continue to protect themselves against the virus.

This will renew the possibility of an AIDS-free generation. We need to do more to show adolescents that their lives matter – regardless of their gender, race, sexual orientation, or socioeconomic status.

Four Ways to Support Vulnerable Youth: Key Takeaways from a Six-Year Livelihood Program

Written by Nikhit D’Sa, Director of Research, Evaluation, and Learning, Education and Child Protection at Save the Children

 

The current generation of 1.8 billion young people (aged 10-24) is the largest in our global history. This burgeoning youth cohort is especially evident in sub-Saharan Africa; the 10 youngest nations by population age are in sub-Saran Africa; the median age in five of these countries – Niger, Uganda, Mali, Malawi, and Zambia – is under 16 years, with approximately 60% of the population under the age of 25. Harnessing this demographic dividend has proved difficult. Youth unemployment rates have remained persistently high for the last decade; for every adult of working age who is unemployed, about four youth of working age are also unemployed. In addition, this issue is compounded for youth in rural communities of continental Africa who have never been to school or left school early; gross school enrollment rates are some of the lowest for these youth, while the working poverty rates are some of the highest globally. The issue facing these youth is as much about underemployment and low quality employment as it is about unemployment.  

Launched in 2012, Youth in Action (YiA) was a six-year program implemented by Save the Children in partnership with the Mastercard Foundation. The goal of YiA was to improve the socioeconomic status of 40,000 out-of-school youth (12-18 years) in rural Burkina Faso, Egypt, Ethiopia, Malawi, and Uganda. The YiA program aimed to strengthen work readiness skills, then develop business and management capabilities, and create space to apply learned skills, all while supported by family and community. While there is a growing body of research on programming for youth livelihood development, the evidence on the effectiveness of these programs is mixed. Additionally, there are still questions around equity: who benefits from these programs and who is left behind? To address some of these research gaps, Save the Children embedded 32 studies into the six years of implementing YiA. In October 2018, Save the Children launched a report—Supporting rural youth to leverage decent work: Evidence from the cross-sectoral Youth in Action program – that synthesizes the findings from the studies to reflect on four key evidence-based lessons.

Lesson 1: Work readiness is possible in four months

Since YiA focused on vulnerable, out-of-school youth from especially rural areas in each of the five countries, the program prioritized supporting youth to build functional literacy and numeracy, financial literacy, and transferable life skills. YiA youth made significant and practical improvements in nearly all these work readiness skills in Burkina Faso, Egypt, Ethiopia, and Uganda, but not in Malawi. Literacy was the one skill area where youth were still lagging after YiA; less than half the youth in Burkina Faso, Egypt, Ethiopia, and Malawi could read a grade 3 passage with comprehension by the end of the program. One of the issues was that unlike other work readiness skills youth had limited opportunities to practice their literacy foundations after the first four months of dedicated learning. They needed additional literacy instruction with more practical ways to practice their skills in the labor market. Overall, the findings support the YiA hypothesis that youth can build a wide variety of work readiness skills over a condensed time-period – four months of sessions, three sessions/week, and three hours/day. This accelerated programming can be especially effective if coupled with focused and explicit instruction as well as opportunities to engage in practical activities, like saving with a formal institution, that supports future livelihood development.

 

Lesson 2: Livelihood development IS enhanced by family and community support

In the rural contexts where YiA was implemented, parents and community members are the gatekeepers to the labor market. Youth are negotiating their reputation in their community for being hard working and responsible. One way in which youth can build this reputation is by participating in programs like YiA, providing a signal to family and community that the youth would make a good employee or that support for a youth-run business would pay off. YiA worked on this by engaging early with communities and clearly explaining its value in reliably supporting youth development. Prior to YiA, families and communities were hesitant to provide youth with substantial financial, material, and/or emotional support for livelihood development. In all the countries, YiA youth reported marked increases in support from their family for livelihood development in the form of space for a business, land, tools, and/or emotional support. They also reported improved support from community business mentors at least nine months after graduating from the program. Additionally, increases in family and community support over the program period were associated with stronger gains in work readiness skills like financial literacy and communication.

Lesson 3: Quantitative data can mask gendered barriers

Disaggregating quantitative data by gender is the first step. It gives us a picture on whether there are differences between male and female youth. However, outcomes data may mask important gendered barriers that influence the livelihood development of male and female youth. For example, while male and female youth reported equivalent levels of and gains in family and community financial, emotional and material support in the outcomes data, the qualitative data highlighted that the kind of support often differed by gender. Families often provided female youth more limited financial resources than male youth because female youth were viewed as having a smaller payout since they would leave the home once married. Moreover, parents and community members often felt that the mobility of female youth had to be restricted to ensure their safety, resulting in more support for home-based micro-enterprises as compared to support for a wider range of non-home-based business options for male youth. In some communities, this restriction on the type of micro-enterprise limited the income and savings opportunities for female youth. 

Lesson 4: Rural Youth choose and can sustain self-employment

The figure below illustrates the employment status of youth before YiA and at least nine months after graduating (pooled data for Burkina Faso, Egypt, Ethiopia, and Uganda). We found a marked decrease in the percent of youth wage-employed and unemployed, and a statistically and practically significant increase in youth who were self-employed. This is likely because, while YiA started with five pathways, youth in all five countries overwhelmingly chose self-employment and started a micro-enterprise. The decrease in wage-employment may suggest less stability for some youth. However, wage employment before YiA was primarily seasonal and temporary. This is why YiA views the move to sustained self-employment as progress toward decent work for these youth.

Distribution of YiA youth employment status before and at least nine months after YiA

While we were not able to disaggregate income and savings information by which pathway youth selected, the fact that a majority of youth selected the self-employment pathway does suggest that improvements in income and savings are heavily influenced by the sustained self-employment of youth. In Egypt, Ethiopia, and Uganda, youth were able to establish work that allowed them to individually move above the USD 1.90/day international poverty line, effectively improving their socioeconomic status. Additionally, across Burkina Faso, Egypt, Ethiopia, and Uganda, 40% of youth reported saving formally or informally before YiA. At least nine months after YiA this increased to 80% of youth, with the average youth reporting an almost fivefold increase in the amount saved.

As we look to build more evidence on holistic skill-building models like YiA, future research should focus on more robust comparison-group prospective studies that follow youth from the start of the program to their socioeconomic development several years after the program. Furthermore, the next round of research needs to move beyond simply disaggregating data by gender. We need to collect reliable and valid mixed methods data on gender norms among youth, in their families, and in their communities. Collecting gender norms data can allow us a more dynamic understanding of the gendered barriers facing male and female youth, and how socioeconomic development varies based on the presence of specific gendered norms.

This post originally appeared on NextBillion

Delivering Quality Family Planning for the Hardest to Reach

Written by Carolyn Miles, President & CEO, Save the Children

Furah is a mother of four children who lives in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The eastern part of the country where she lives is marked by chronic poverty and decades of violence. With four children and living in a crisis-prone area, Furah wanted to avoid another pregnancy. At a Save the Children-support health facility, she was able to get an intrauterine contraceptive device to provide her with long-acting contraception. She, and others in her community, have noticed the positive benefits that family planning have brought to their community: “Children don’t get malnutrition or get sick as much as they did before the family planning program started.”

Satisfying demand for family planning services has the potential to drastically reduce maternal and child deaths. Nearly 1 in 3 maternal deaths and 1 in 5 child deaths could be averted if the 214 million women with a need for family planning were able to use modern contraceptive methods. There are also benefits to children’s education and girls’ ability to stay in school.

Save the Children delivers high impact reproductive health and family planning interventions for women and girls around the world. We do this by:

  1. Prioritizing the hardest to reach, including adolescents
  2. Improving clinical capacity and supply chains, particularly at the lowest level of service delivery
  3. Engaging men, women and communities to create an enabling environment for family planning use, including address inequitable gender norms
  4. Delivering family planning in humanitarian responses
  5. Advocating for supportive policies for family planning in partnership with local leaders and organizations
Furah and her four children outside the Health Facility in DRC. She has noticed the positive benefits that family planning have brought to the community.

Our family planning programs focus on postpartum women by capitalizing on the opportunity of service integration through maternal, newborn or child care services. Using our multisector approaches and expansive reach through newborn and child health, we reach postpartum mothers through vaccinations campaigns and other touch points at the community and facility level.

In humanitarian settings, we support reproductive health services by training and mentoring frontline health providers, providing commodities and supplies, strengthening supply chains and supporting communities to increase awareness and use of reproductive health services. We deploy quickly and stay long term to deliver family planning in any setting.

Our adolescent sexual and reproductive health and rights programs fill critical information and service gaps, foster the development of positive social and gender norms, build linkages to health systems and equip adolescents with the skills, information and supportive social environment needed to navigate the challenges and opportunities during this critical life stage. Our programs address barriers through facility- and community-based strategies to increase access to health services that respond to the needs of adolescents and offer a full range of contraceptive methods.

More than 50 Save the Children staff members from 16 countries will be in Kigali, Rwanda this month for the International Conference on Family Planning – where we will share our expertise and thought leadership with the international community.  Together, we can all ensure mothers like Furah have the future they deserve.

To read more about how family planning saves lives, click here.